Chemistry, Processes and Problems of Complex Ores Utilization: Hydrometallurgical OptionsAuthor(s): Gerald O. Onyedika, A. C. Achusim-Udenko, C. I. A. Nwoko and M. O. C. Ogwuegbu
Since the second world war, the demands for pure elements and other metals hitherto considered rather rare, and usually found in association as complex mineral ores, have increased considerably. The utilization of these minerals as-mined has largely constituted research and technological problems. This paper has addressed the problems of complex ores utilization by considering the nature and compositions of complex ores, the multi-stage hydrometallurgical processes involved in their utilization, reagent types and consumption, energy requirements and waste disposal. The chemistry of the hydrometallurgical processes of these complex ores and the methods of separation of the constituent species has been significantly reviewed.