Cerium oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by microwave method using cerium nitrate and ethylene glycol as precursors. The material was structurally characterized by XRD and SEM and the optical characterization was carried out using UVÂvisible and Photoluminescence spectro fluorimeter techniques. The X ray studies reveal the face centered cubic structures for cerium oxide nano particles. The absorption and emission spectrum shows a greater blue shift when synthesized using microwave. The purity of the sample was confirmed using XRD and EDAX.