In beta thalassemia, decreased or impaired biosynthesis of β-globin leads to accumulation of unpaired α-globin chains. Excess presence of the α-globin in chains is the primary reason for the cellular oxidative damage in thalassemia and also iron overloading. As a result of both, high plasma iron and intracellular non-hemoglobin iron in beta thalassemia leads to enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. Blood samples were collected from (100) subjects (50 beta thalassemia major patients and 50 healthy controls) in the range of age 4-18 years. The goal of the present investigations was to study the relationship between oxidative stress by measuring the malonyldialdehyde level, which is the marker of oxidative stress in thalassemia major patients, serum trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Se) and the role of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GSH), glutlathione peroxidase (GPX) in thalassemia blood samples. From result obtained, it was clear that plasma (MDA) levels was higher whereas erythrocyte SOD, CAT, GSH and GPX levels decreased in thalassemic patients as compared to the normal controls, There were significant changes in the values of (Se, Zn, Cu and Fe) between two groups, increase levels of (Fe) and (Cu) were observed, whereas decrease in levels of (Zn) and (Se) were there in group of beta thalassemia, when compared with group of controls. The administration of selective antioxidant along with essential trace elements and minerals to reduce the extent of oxidative damage and related complications in β thalassemia major still need further evaluation.