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Cyclooxygenase Top Journal

 Cyclooxygenase (COX) is a rate-limiting enzyme involved in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2, which is the precursor of several molecules, including prostaglandins, prostacyclin, and thromboxanes. Cyclooxygenase (COX), officially known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), is an enzyme (specifically, a family of isozymes, EC that is responsible for formation of prostanoids, including thromboxane and prostaglandins such as prostacyclin, from arachidonic acid. It is responsible for converting arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, which are mediators of inflammation and promoters of tumor growth and angiogenesis in processed tissues, and suppresses immune surveillance. COX is a common target for anti-inflammatory drugs. The most significant difference between the isoenzymes, which allows for selective inhibition, is the substitution of isoleucine at position 523 in COX-1 with valine in COX-2. The smaller Val523 residue in COX-2 allows access to a hydrophobic side-pocket in the enzyme (which Ile523 sterically hinders). Drug molecules, such as DuP-697 and the coxibs derived from it, bind to this alternative site and are considered to be selective inhibitors of COX-2.

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