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Placental Angiogenesis Biomarkers (VEGF) and Potential Pathways Involved (COX-2 and CASPASE 3) in Pregnancies Complicated by Hyperglycemia

Author(s): Simone Angelica Leite de Carvalho Silva, Iracema Mattos Paranhos Calderon and Renee Laufer Amorim

Diabetes associated with pregnancy progresses with adverse perinatal outcomes (RPNA), directly dependent on the quality of maternal metabolic control and integrity of the placental function. The hypoxicmetabolicmodel, described to explain the pathophysiology of RPNA in these pregnancies may be related to different ways of acting in the trophoblast. The objective of this review was to explore the relationship between maternal hyperglycemia and markers of placental angiogenesis, as well as markers of possible pathways involved in this process. Interestingly, the pathways related to inflammation and / or proliferation and cell apoptosis, potentially related to the processes of intrauterine hypoxia, a feature of pregnancies complicated by uncontrolled hyperglycemia. To this end, we selected markers of activity in the trophoblast, among them the proliferation of endothelial factor (VEGF), the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX-2), a marker of inflammation and also of regeneration and cell proliferation, and proteolytic enzyme family of caspases (CASPASE-3), a marker of cells undergoing apoptosis. As a strategy used to search, defined as keywords of interest in databases with public access (Lilacs, SciELO, PubMed /Medline, Virtual Health Library / BIREME, Cochrane, among others), and the manual search books on specific texts.

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