Interpreting the Universe’s Expansion Redshift Data with Respect to Energy

Author(s): Solomon BT and Beckwith AW

This paper extends the Law of Consistency to include transfer, transformation, keno and spectrum consistencies. Consistency at any scale therefore falsifies any theoretical approach that breaks the conservation of mass-energy. With these it is now possible to structure the expansion redshift data and propose how to handle uncertainties in the gravitational red shifts. A review of some of the latest finding point to precision in modern methods for estimating the expansion redshift, however, significant variable bias is present and therefore, accuracy eludes us. Proposing the shape of the Universe as the surface of a sphere, it was possible to identify sources of the heteroscedastic errors. These errors are primarily due to combining age with distance. Hubble Constant is found to be 75.403.
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