Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Possible Related Risk FactorsAuthor(s): Saleh M Saleh, Yasser Elhosary, Wafaa M Ezzat and Nour A Abdulla
Aim: To identify the prevalence, related viral and non viral risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Egypt over last 15 years. Methods: All HCC patients attending Agouza Liver Center between January 1996 and December 2010 were enrolled in the study. Trend, demographic features of patients (age, gender, and residence), risk factors (HBsAg, HCV-Ab, schistosomiasis and others). Results: Over 15 years, 1 759 HCC patients out of 29 000 chronic liver disease patients were diagnosed with an overall proportion of 6.1%. The annual proportion of HCC showed a variation ranged from 5.3%to 6.5%. It was evident that the male proportion was significantly increased 84 %(P-value=0.0001). M/F was about 5:1 with high significant increase among age group of 45-60 years (P-value=0.0001). The distribution of viral hepatitis among HCC patients was: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection proportion was 89.8%, hepatitis B virus infection proportion was 1.8%,co infection of HCV and HBV proportion was1.3%, none B none C proportion was 7.1%. As regards distribution of non viral causes among HCC patients: 8 (0.5%) patients suffered from autoimmune hepatitis, 94 (5.3%) cases were due to non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and the remaining cases were due to idiopathic causes. Conclusion: HCC is an increasing problem. The most related risk factors are viral hepatitis infections; older ages and male gender. NASH is a health problem that must be not ignored as a risk factor for developing HCC.