Foliar Epidermal Study of Withania somnifera Grown in Heavy Metal Treated Soil

Author(s): Saidulu CH, Venkateshwar C, Gangadhar Rao S and Ramkrishna N

Withania somnifera L. Dunal is one of the most important medicinal plants and also known as “Indian ginseng”. The present study deals with pot culture experiments with plants were grown in three treatments in black soil, Treatment No I. control without any addition to the soil, Treatment No II. Cadmium 10 ppm, Chromium 20 ppm, Nickel 16 ppm were introduced into the soil, Treatment No III one % of Calcium hydroxide was also added along with heavy metals to soil. Then plants were grown up to the productivity levels. The micro morphological characters of Withania somnifera in epidermal cells were polygonal on the both surfaces, anticlinal walls were straight and smooth surface were dominant on both the surfaces, which are same in three treatments. The costal cells are present on the both surfaces as they are parallelly were dominant on both surfaces in three treatments. The epidermal cells frequency differs a lot within the same surface and also on both the surfaces of the same leaf of Withania somnifera. Highest epidermal frequency is dominated at middle zone on abaxial surfaces in three treatments. It was observed anisocytic stomata are dominant on both the surface, which are same in three treatments. The (Treatment I) control plants showed high stomatal index on abaxial surface in leaf apex, lamina and margin compared to the (Treatment II) heavy metal treated plants and (Treatment III) heavy metal +1% Ca(OH)2 treated plants. Trichome density was supported maximum on abaxial surface in three treatments. The present investigation highlights about shape, anticlinal walls, thickness of walls, surface characters and distribution of epidermal cells, epidermal frequency, type of stomata, stomatal frequency, stomata index, type of subsidiaries arrangement and orientation of stomata and trichomes density in different three treatments

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