A comparative biochemical study on the antioxidant status in peripheral and cupping blood samples of smokers and non-smokersAuthor(s): Nazmodin Noory, Masoud Mashhadi Akbar Boojar, Manouchehr Mashhadi Akbar Boojar
Introduction: Smoking-induced oxidative stress causes the oxidation of biomolecules and results in smoking-related disorders. On other hand, Interest in complementary and alternative medicine has recently grown among patients with life-threatening diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the interactions of wet cupping and smoking on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system. Material and methods: 40 healthy, non-athlete men were assigned into non-, mild, and heavy smoker groups. Theywere subjected to two sampling times with one week interval. Then the levels of antioxidant enzyme activities, oxidative damage biomarkers, nicotine, carboxyhemoglobin, and vitamins C and E were evaluated in peripheral and cupping blood samples. Results: We found increase in antioxidant enzyme activities in smokers with respect to non-smokers. Smoking decreased the levels of malondialdehyde and reactive carbonyl derivatives, and increased the level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, nicotine and carboxyhemoglobin in both peripheral and cupping blood samples. In both sampling times, antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative damage biomarkers in peripheral blood were significantly higher and lower, respectively, as compared with cupping blood.At second sampling, antioxidant enzyme activities were higher and oxidative damage biomarkers were lower with respect to first sampling as they evaluated in both kinds of blood samples. Nicotine and carboxyhemoglobin in cupping blood were lower than peripheral blood, and at second sampling were higher than first sampling. Conclusions: Smoking at any levels, elevated antioxidant enzyme activities in peripheral and/or cupping blood that may raised fromoxidative damage caused by smoking. However, wet cupping was able to decrease the oxidative damage biomarkers.