Abstract

Probability, Randomness, and Subspace, with Experiments

Author(s): Solomon BT, and Beckwith AW

Quantum theory does not have a mechanism that explains how nature implements probabilities. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to present new directions in the understanding of probabilities and randomness with the eventual objective of controlling photon localization (in a future paper). The expectation is to improve photon collection and loss mitigation. The conservation of energy within the photon’s transverse electromagnetic wave requires that energy is transferred between spacetime (x,y,z,t) and subspace (x,y,z). This paper proposes that it is in this subspace that nature implements probabilities. The paper analyses the differences between probabilities and randomness and infers that all particles have internal clocks C, that is the mechanism for randomness. A glass thought experiment is used to clarify how probabilities are effected and as a result it is proposed that the random distribution of photons across the Point Spread Function or Airy Pattern (not Airy Disc) is not due to the photon probability but due to the random behaviour of electron shells receiving the photon localization. Finally, 5 experiments are proposed.


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