In this study, applicability, usage, economic and social effects, advantages and disadvantages, legal procedures and practices of the European Union harmonization process of GMO ÂÂs in Turkey are examined. The most important risk arising fromgeneticallymodified organisms is seen as ÂÂloss of genetic diversityÂÂ. GMO products are almost impossible to turn back to nature after having been released. Lack of information on GMOs may result with the loss of the existing genetic resources. This risk should be carefully analyzed in Turkey which is a country with rich genetic resources. On the other hand, modern biotechnological methods using the positive aspects can offer great benefits to science and humanity. Use of gene transfer applications in the field of agriculture faces with a great reaction in Turkey as well as in other consumer health and the environment- sensitive societies; thus, severalmeasures and risk assessment techniques against GMOs are raised. Therefore, consumer health and environmental factors are required to be considered while implementing the policies of biotechnological research and applications in Turkey.