Manmade Wetland for Wastewater Treatment with Special Emphasis on Design criteriaAuthor(s): Pratik A. Patel and Nishith A. Dharaiya
Manmade wetlands are planned systems designed and constructed to employ wetland vegetation to assist in treating wastewater in a more controlled environment as compared to that which occurs in natural wetlands. Hammer (1990) defines constructed wetlands as a designed, manmade complex of saturated substrate, emergent and submerged vegetation, animal life, and water that simulate wetlands for human uses and benefits. Manmade wetlands are an “eco-friendly” alternative for secondary and tertiary municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. The pollutants removed by manmade wetlands include organic materials, suspended solids, nutrients, pathogens, heavy metals and other toxic or hazardous pollutants. In municipal applications, they can follow traditional sewage treatment processes. Different types of manmade wetlands can effectively treat primary, secondary or tertiary treated sewage. Manmade wetlands are practical alternatives to conventional treatment of domestic sewage, industrial and agricultural wastes, storm water runoff, and acid mining drainage.