Osteopenia Journals

 Osteopenia is bone density is lesser compared to the normal level. The aging U.S. population is predicted to contribute to as much as a 50% increase in prevalence by 2025.   Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass, structural deterioration, and porous bone, which are associated with higher fracture risk.Bone loss related to declining estrogen levels increases fracture risk in postmenopausal women, who make up the majority of osteoporosis cases. Screening and diagnosis use a bone mineral density (BMD) measurement that estimates bone strength.Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the most widely used, validated technique to measure BMD.Other techniques include a vertebral fracture assessment with a densitometer,peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography–based absorptiometry (quantitative computed tomography), and quantitative ultrasound densitometry, but these are not as widely used for reasons such as radiation exposure, lack of standardization of techniques, and cost.

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