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Milk Composition Peer Review Journals

Factors that increase milk yield in cows or goats are increased body weight, advancing age, increased plane of nutrition, fall and winter kidding, moderate or cool environmental temperatures, and good body condition at kidding. In addition, milk adulteration is commonly reported in LMIC; in East Africa, India and Pakistan it is common to have milk intentionally diluted with water to increase profit. To hide this dilution, urea, vegetable oil, glucose, sodium chloride, cane sugar or rice flour, are added (Andhra and Dadra, 2011). This affects nutrient concentration and profile, and can also introduce pathogens. Milk composition affects the cheese yield and quality. Casein is the protein, which we utilize when making cheese. Most of the whey proteins will be lost with the whey during cheese making. The molecular components in casein are αS1, αS2, β and κ –casein differing in amino acid composition, phosphorylation and glycosylation. Unless otherwise stated, the information presented in this website refers to cow's milk. In general, the gross composition of cow's milk in the U.S. is 87.7% water, 4.9% lactose (carbohydrate), 3.4% fat, 3.3% protein, and 0.7% minerals (referred to as ash). Milk composition varies depending on the species (cow, goat, sheep), breed (Holstein, Jersey), the animal's feed, and the stage of lactation. Although there are minor variations in milk composition, the milk from different cows is stored together in bulk tanks and provides a relatively consistent composition of milk year round in the U.S.

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