The natural biosensing molecules defined above may be changed by artificial analogues which mimic capability of the native unit. The synthetic molecules encompass peptide aptamers, oligonucleotide aptamer, DNA and oligonucleotide analogues, together with peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), locked nucleic acids (LNAs), glycol nucleic acid (GNA), and threose nucleic acid (TNA).A peptide aptamer is a short peptide with excessive affinity to the goal molecules, which makes them an alternative to an antibody [42]. They bind in particular to a organic or chemical antigen. Peptide aptamers are generally expressed on a impartial supporting protein. It is engineered by means of putting an oligonucleotide-encoding aptamer into the gene of the assisting protein. Peptide aptamers are used for detection of food contamination, pathogen detection, medical diagnostics, and detection of proteins, e.G., human chorionic gonadotropin



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