# Research

, Volume: 11( 9)## Unified Dark Energy and Dark Matter from Rute as Different Manifestations of Vacuum Energy

- *Correspondence:
- Kabir A. Umar

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria

**E-mail:**kabir_umar@yahoo.com

**Received date:** June 01, 2023, Manuscript No. TSPA-23-100914; **Editor assigned:** June 05, 2023, Pre-QC No. TSPA-23-100914 (PQ); **Reviewed:** June 19, 2023, QC No. TSPA-23-100914 (Q); **Revised:** August 31, 2023, Manuscript No. TSPA-23-100914 (R); **Published:** September 07, 2023, DOI. 10.37532/2320-6756.2023.11(9).379

**Citation:** Umar AK, Benjamin GA. Unified Dark Energy and Dark Matter from Rute as Different Manifestations of Vacuum Energy. J. Phys.
Astron.2023;11 (9):379.

### Abstract

Dark energy and dark matter are both described as different manifestations of vacuum energy within the framework of Rute. It describes gravitational inversion in a dimensional symmetry and interactions regulated by constraints. In this framework, the bare vacuum energy component exists in a gravitationally inert state where actual gravitational constant G_{o}=0G, while real particles oscillates between this inert state and the active state where G_{o}=2G. The background effect of neutrino substrates in the inert state makes G_{o}>0G in such state, causing the gravitation of virtual particles with positive pressure appearing as hot and cold dark matter. A non-zero component of vacuum energy also spills into the gravitationally active state as a cosmological constant form of dark energy. This is due to an energy density constraint and speed limit asymmetry between the two gravitational states that limits the capacity of the inert state to contain the entire vacuum energy component. This form of dark energy and dark matter, are both parameterized by a common asymmetry parameter Γ which is suppressed in deep gravitational potential wells. Rute predicts a testable Gravitational Wave Reheating (GWR) mechanism in which gravitational waves produce electromagnetic secondaries in the presence of negative pressure such as that from strong magnetic fields and even dark energy. This mechanism which may explain Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) and Excess Radio Background (ERB) is also suppressed by the positive curvature of deep gravitational wells.

## Keywords

Rute; Gravitational Inversion; Constraints; Cosmological Constant; Dark; Energy; Dark Matter; Neutrino Substrate; Speed Limit Asymmetry; Energy; Density Constraint; Gravitational Wave Reheating

## Introduction

Dark energy has remained a mystery since its first discovery in 1998 [1,2]. Several independent observations including the Planck data indicates that dark energy constitutes about 68.3% of the total energy budget of the universe and driving its accelerated expansion [3]. This is in addition to the existing mystery of dark matter which appears to be some invisible but gravitating form of matter that clusters within and around galaxies. Dark matter makes up about 26.8%, while ordinary visible matter makes up 4.6% of the mass energy content of the universe.

The prolonged mystery of dark energy and dark matter which now accounts for about 95% of the gravitating energy content of our universe is not for want of efforts. Rather, it is an indication that their nature is deeply rooted in the way the universe actually works.

The simplest and most economical solution to explain dark energy already exists in the form of a cosmological constant term (Λ) earlier introduced by Einstein in his field equations and forms a key part of the standard model of cosmology known as the ΛCDM model (lambda cold dark matter). Λ readily comes from the expected gravitational effect of vacuum energy predicted within the framework of quantum field theory. The problem is the extremely large value of about 120 orders of magnitude expected from our understanding of quantum field theory compared to observation. This is the Λ problem [4].

Supersymmetry (SUSY) models readily provide a cancellation mechanism to reduce the bare Λ to a very small value but they suffer from excessive fine tuning. Also, supersymmetric partners of the standard model required for cancellation have not been found. There are some string theory models in which vacuum energy is simply relaxed, as well as some that resorts to anthropic consideration [5,6]. There are some models that makes the space time metric insensitive to Λ [7,8].

While the efforts to resolve the Λ problem intensified, there had been several alternative approaches that avoids the difficult problem of Λ. Prominent among them are quintessence which involves a slowly evolving scaler field, modified gravity models, unification of dark energy and dark matter [9-12].

The amount of theoretical and observational efforts that has been applied to understand dark energy and dark matter shows that they require new physics beyond the existing standard model of cosmology and particle physics. One of such attempts is the Rute model earlier published in its nascent form in focusing on dark energy and recently extended to include dark matter [13].

The Rute model, takes the speed limit asymmetry approach of resolving the Λ problem in which the bare vacuum energy component exists only in a gravitationally inert state where actual gravitational constant is zero. Real standard model particles oscillate between the gravitationally inert state and gravitational active state. A non-zero vacuum energy density then emerges in the gravitationally active state as dark energy due to a key energy density constraint and a speed limit asymmetry.

It describes dark matter as a different manifestation of the bare vacuum energy component that depends on the background effect of
neutrino substrates on the gravitational constant. Neutrinos particularly cosmic neutrinos illuminates the background in the
gravitationally inert state such that *G _{o}>0G*, making virtual particles gravitate with positive pressure and appear as cold dark matter.
The model framework describes a gravitational inversion in a dimensional symmetry that doubles large spatial dimensions with
microscopic partners while their interactions are regulated by constraints. These constraints such as speed constraint, energy density
constraint, volume constraint, and force constraint, simply ensure a fixed absolute value of associated physical quantities across the
various dimensions and states. This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 discusses the key dimensional symmetry that doubles
the number of large spatial dimensions with microscopic partners. It also discusses the speed constraint, the two on and off
gravitational states, and their speed limit asymmetry and density constraint, which is then applied in section 4 to solve the Λ
problem. Section 3 discusses general relativity in extra dimension S

_{0}and explore it unique features of gravitational inversion as well as the chain of causality in gravitation. It is shown that the expansion of the time like S

_{0}dimension is equivalent to the curvature of our visible spatial dimensions S

_{1}. Section 4 discusses the emergence of dark energy due to a speed limit asymmetry and energy density constraint discussed in section 2, while in section 5 the key reheating prediction is discussed. Section 6 discusses the gravitation of virtual particles which appears as dark matter due to the background effect of neutrino substrates on the gravitational constant in the inert state. Summary and conclusion follows in section 7.

## Materials and Methods

** Dimensional structure and symmetry in Rute**

In the Rute framework, the number of large spatial dimensions is described by the dimension number Sn such that,

*Sn* = [*4n–1*]*d* (1)

Where n=0, 1, 2, 3…

n=0, corresponds to S_{0} = -1d which is a time like spatial dimension that invisible due to speed constraint discussed in section 2.1.

n=1, corresponds to S_{1}=3d which is our visible spatial dimensions.

n=2, if it exists will correspond to S_{2}=7d which will also be invisible due to a force constraint that restricts standard model particles
to the visible spatial dimensions S_{1}. Such invisible large dimensions however can be accessible by maximizing interactions in S_{1} which minimizes the restricting interaction in S_{2} according to equation 2.

*F _{P}^{2} = F_{μ}^{2} + F_{ν}^{2}* (2)

Where;

F_{P} =Planck force.

F_{ν} =Resultant force a particle experiences in S_{1} while F_{μ} is the restricting force of interaction in S_{2} capable of making it inaccessible by standard model particles.

The dimensional symmetry in Rute doubles large spatial dimensions with microscopic dimensional partners with opposite
dimension numbers such that the total dimension numbers of the universe is zero as illustrated in **Figure 1**. While the dimensional
partner of S_{0}, is the Planck size S_{P} dimension, the dimensional partner of S_{1} is denoted S_{α} and the possible dimensional partner of S_{2} will be denoted S_{β}.

The volume constraint implies that the large spatial dimensions such as S_{1} and S_{0} where inflated in the early universe at the expense
of their dimensional partners S_{α} and S_{P} until they contracted to their microscopic sizes becoming invisible.

This paper focuses on the S_{0} dimension and its microscopic dimensional partner S_{P} as well as their interactions with the visible
spatial dimension S_{1}.

**FIG 1:** Dimensional symmetry in Rute showing the large spatial dimensions S_{1} and S_{0} and their microscopic dimensional
partners ensures that the total dimension number of the universe is zero. The volume constraint and gravitational inversion
symmetry implies that S_{P} and S_{α} were contracted to their minimum microscopic sizes to inflate S_{1} and S_{0} in the early universe. Before then, they were all comparable in size. The gravitational inversion interaction is now between S_{1} and S_{0} as
illustrated in section 3.1.

**Speed constraint and invisibility of S _{0}**

Despite its cosmic size, the S_{0} dimension is invisible due to its time like behavior from the speed constraint illustrated in equation
(2) and **Figure 2**.

The speed constraint requires that a particle’s velocity must always equal the maximum speed limit c in the S_{1}-S_{0} dimension.
Massless particles like photons have zero velocity component along S_{0}, while massive particles and antiparticles travel in opposite
directions along S_{0}. This motion along S_{0} is quantitatively equivalent to the passage of time such that,

*c ^{2} = μ^{2} + ν^{2}* (3)

Where;

*μ*=Particle velocity along S_{0}.

*ν*=Particle velocity along visible spatial dimension S_{1}.

**FIG 2:** The speed constraint relationship between visible spatial dimensions S_{1} and time like spatial dimension S_{0}.

When ν→0, for massive particles, μ→c and conversely, when ν=c for massless particles, μ=0 to satisfy the speed constraint.
This suggests that time can be an emergent temporal dimension driven by the velocity of a particle along S_{0} dimension. How fast
time appears to pass for a massive particle can be equivalent to the ratio of its S_{0} component of velocity μ to the speed limit c as,

1γ ^{*} |
= | μc |
(4) |

Where γ^{*} is the equivalent Lorentz factor for the S_{0} dimension. Since,

*μ ^{2} = c^{2} – ν^{2}* (5)

γ* ^{*}* =
$\frac{1}{\sqrt{\mathrm{1-$$\left(\genfrac{}{}{0.1ex}{}{\mathrm{v2}}{\mathrm{c2}}\right)$$}}}$
(6)

**Speed limit asymmetry **

The asymmetry in speed limits c and c_{0} is described by the asymmetry parameter Γ which is the ratio of the sizes of S_{P} and S_{0}.

Γ = | 2πl_{P}l
_{o} |
~ 10^{-60} |
(7) |

Where *l _{o}* is the size of S

_{0}and

*l*is the Planck length which is also the size of the S

_{P}_{P}dimension (

**Figure 3**).

And,

*C _{o}* =

*C*[1-Γ] (8)

**FIG 3:** Ring structure of S_{0}-S_{P} dimensions with two unequal speed limit states C and C_{0}, at the two ends of S_{P} dimension.

**Gravitational state oscillation **

Standard model particles oscillates between the two speed states which are also opposite gravitational on and off states. This is such that for a particle of energy E, the state life time t_{s} for such particle is,

*t _{s}* =
$\frac{\mathrm{4\pi \hslash}}{\sqrt{\mathrm{EP2-EP$$$$}}}$
(9)

Where,

ℏ=Reduced Planck constant.

*E _{P}*=Planck en

ergy. The oscillation of standard model particles between the two gravitational states *G _{0}=0G* and

*G*, makes gravity discrete on microscopic space time scale. It however appears smooth on macroscopic space time scale with an average gravitational constant G.

_{0}=2G**Energy density constraint**

The energy density constraint essentially constrains the total energy density in a given volume of space to always equal the upper
limit of the Planck density *ρ _{P}*.

*ρ _{P}* is only obtainable in the gravitational active state where the speed limit is c while the bare vacuum energy component exists in
the inert state with lower speed limit and hence lower Planck density

*ρ*,

_{P0}*ρ _{P}*

^{2}=

*ρ*

_{m}^{2}+

*ρ*

_{vac}^{2}(10)

Where,

*ρ _{vac}*=Vacuum energy density.

*ρ*=Total baryonic matter density.

_{m}The key significance of this is in the emergence of non-zero Λ dark energy in section 4. However, such energy density constraint implies a Planck density limit to the density of black holes like that suggested in, where Planck stars replaces black hole singularities [14].

**General relativity in S _{0} dimension**

Solution of Einstein’s field equations in 1+1 dimension is being used as a pedagogical tool and reveals some interesting properties of the equations in such dimensionality [15, 16].

In this section, the focus is on general relativity in -1+1 dimension which has some inverted features not seen 1+1 dimensionality
because of the negative spatial dimension. The negative dimension number of the S_{0} dimension gives it sometime like features such
as appearance of positive energy density as negative energy density and the inversion of positive pressure to negative pressure.
Einstein’s field equations in S_{0} can be expressed as,

*G _{μν}^{*}* + Λ

*= $\frac{\mathrm{8\pi G}}{\mathrm{c4$$$$}}$*

^{*}g_{μν}^{}*T*(11)

_{μν}^{*}Where,

*G _{μν}^{*}*=Equivalent Einstein tensor or the curvature terms in S

_{0}dimension.

Λ

^{*}=Equivalent cosmological constant. T

_{μν}

^{*}=Stress energy tensor as seen in S

_{0}dimension.

In -1+1 dimensionality, just as in 1+1, the curvature term *G _{μν}^{*}* is zero, and equation (11) becomes,

Λ* ^{*}g_{μν}^{}* =
$\frac{\mathrm{8\pi G}}{\mathrm{c4$$$$}}$

*T*(12)

_{μν}^{*}Which is essentially a linear algebraic equation and can be further decomposed into a spatial and a time component which is not feasible in 3 +1 dimensionality [16].

Λ* ^{*}g_{xx}^{}* =
$\frac{\mathrm{8\pi G}}{\mathrm{c4$$$$}}$

*T*(13)

_{xx}^{*}Λ* ^{*}g_{tt}^{}* =
$\frac{\mathrm{8\pi G}}{\mathrm{c4$$$$}}$

*T*(14)

_{tt}^{*}**Features of general relativity in S _{0} dimension**

The negative one dimensionality of S_{0} confers on it some unique features such as:

**Energy in S _{1}=Energy everywhere in S_{0}:** An energy density associated with a given Planck volume of 3d space S

_{1}appears as an equivalent energy density everywhere along S

_{0}dimension associated with it as illustrated in

**Figure 4**. This makes any form of energy density and positive pressure in S

_{1}appears as a cosmological constant in S

_{0}.

** Positive energy density in S _{1}=Negative energy density in S_{0}:** Due to the negative dimensionality, any positive energy density in
S

_{1}is inverted and appears as negative energy density which drives the positive cosmological constant expansion of S

_{0}.

** Positive pressure in S _{1}=Negative pressure in S_{0}:** Any form of positive pressure in S

_{1}appears as negative pressure in S

_{0}for the same reason of negative dimensionality. The result is a positive cosmological constant expansion of S

_{0}.

**Negative pressure in S _{1}=Positive pressure in S_{0}:** The same negative dimensionality causes the inversion of negative pressure in S

_{1}appearing as positive pressure in S

_{0}driving its negative cosmological constant contraction.

** Curvature term G _{μν} in S_{1}= Λ*g_{μν} in S_{0}:** The inversion of roles also results in the curvature term in S

_{1}being equivalent to positive cosmological constant expansion S

_{0}as illustrated in

**Figure 5**and equation (15).

**Positive cosmological constant (+Λ) in S _{1}= −Λ*g_{μν} in S_{0}:** A positive cosmological constant in S

_{1}is equivalent to a negative cosmological constant in S

_{0}as illustrated in

**Figure 5**and equation (16).

**FIG 4:** A gravitational well in S_{1} is inverted into a gravitational hill with the expansion of S_{0} by a test particle. The test
particle is replicated about 10^{25} times everywhere along S_{0} dimension like time.

*G _{μν}* + Λ

^{*}

*g*= 0 (15)

_{μν}^{}Λ*g _{μν}* – Λ

^{*}

*g*= 0 (16)

_{μν}^{}**FIG 5:** Gravitational inversion. A positive cosmological constant expansion of S_{0} is equivalent to curvature of S_{1}. Also, a
negative cosmological constant contraction of S_{0} is equivalent to a positive cosmological constant expansion of S_{1}, making
the multidimensional volume of the universe constant in a volume constraint.

**Gravitational chain of causality**

The inversion of gravitation discussed in the previous section suggests that fundamentally, gravity is the expansion or contraction
of S_{0} dimension. This then manifests in an inverted form as curvature or expansion of S_{1} dimension as illustrated in **Figure 5**.

The existence of gravitational on and off states acts as a filter in this gravitational chain of causality enabling real particles to
gravitate while virtual particles are inert (**Figure 6**).

**FIG 6:** Gravitational chain of causality: Gravity at a more fundamental level is about expansion or contraction of S_{0} which
manifests invertedly in S_{1} as curvature or expansion respectively. Also gravitation of particles depends on if they are in
gravitationally active or inert state.

The relatively permanent existence of the bare vacuum energy component in the gravitationally inert state ensures that it does not gravitate. This partly solves the cosmological constant problem. The second part of the problem about the non-zero value is addressed in the next section.

** Emergence of non-zero cosmological constant**

The asymmetry in speed limit described in equation (8) between the two gravitational states also reflects in the values of their Planck densities such that,

*ρ _{P0}*

^{2}=

*ρ*

_{P}^{2}[1-Γ

^{4}] (17)

Where;

0 =Lower Planck density in C0 state and is the Planck density in the C state. The existence of the bare vacuum energy component in the lower C0 state implies that,

*ρ _{νac}* =

*ρ*(18)

_{P0}Which is less than the Planck density and the energy density constraint requires that the total vacuum energy density should be equal to the Planck density in the absence of matter.

Since the gravitationally inert lower speed state lacks the capacity to contain all the vacuum energy components, a small component
spills into the gravitationally active state as dark energy (**Figure 7**).

*ρ _{DE}* =

*ρ*Γ

_{P}^{2}(19)

**FIG 7:** While the bare vacuum energy component occupy the gravitationally inert state C_{0} to its limit, there has to be a
component ρ_{P}Γ^{2} in the gravitationally active state C to satisfy the energy density constraint so that the total vacuum energy
density equals the Planck density ρ_{P}. The lower Planck density ρ_{P0} is associated with speed state C_{0}.

And since Γ is suppressed with the expansion of S_{0} in the gravitational well of massive objects (equation (7) the density of this form
of dark energy varies spatially according to this suppression (**Figure 4**). The deeper the gravitational well the more the suppression.
And substituting the value of Γ from equation (7),

*ρ _{DE}* =
$\frac{\mathrm{4\pi 2\rho P}}{\mathrm{l02$$$$}}$
(20)

Where *l _{0}* is the size of S

_{0}dimension in Planck unit, which increases with the absolute value of the gravitational potential Φ.

**Gravitational Wave Reheating (GWR) prediction**

The propagation of gravitational waves along the visible 3d space S_{1} should naturally vibrate any extra spatial dimension such as
the S_{P} and S_{0} dimensions. Stretching of S_{P} dimension during such vibration will cause a squeeze out of vacuum energy as photons.
This is the Gravitational Wave Reheating (GWR) mechanism of Rute. However as illustrated in **Figure 7**, the expansion of S_{0} dimension in gravitational wells suppresses the possible stretching of S_{P} dimension resulting in threshold value of strain h and
frequency f_{g} below which reheating cannot occur (**Figure 8**).

**FIG 8:** The expansion of the S_{0} dimension in gravitational potential wells suppresses the possible stretching of S_{P} dimension
by gravitational waves oscillations.

If the S_{P} dimension stretches, it will reduce the value of the Planck density and the energy density constraint will squeeze out a
component of vacuum energy as standard model photons.

## Results and Discussion

** Energy scale of reheat photons**

The maximum energy of the reheat photons that can be emitted in the resulting spectrum can be described by,

*E*_{max} = *h _{0}E_{P}* (21)

Where,

*E _{P}*=Planck energy.

*h*=Effective strain for the S

_{0}_{P}dimension. And,

*h _{0}* =
$\frac{\mathrm{hfg\u2013\; H0*}}{\mathrm{fg$$$$}}$
(22)

Where,

*f _{g}*=Gravitational wave frequency.

*h*=Strain and both represent the threshold that has to be exceeded for reheating to occur.

*=Equivalent Hubble constant associated with each cubic Planck volume describing the expansion rate of S*

H

H

_{0}*_{0}dimension.

*H*=Proportional to the curvature of the visible 3d spatial dimension S

_{0}*_{1}and hardens the S

_{P}dimesions against gravitational wave

vibration.

**Magnetic softening of the S _{P} dimension**

The magneto curvature coupling aspect of general relativity was explored based on its tendency to flatten curvature and even dampen gravitational waves [17]. The key aspects of this coupling, is the vector nature of the magnetic field and the magnetic tension that tends to straighten the field lines against distortion by curved space time background.

Essentially the distortion of the field lines by curved background or a passing gravitational wave causes a back reaction from such magnetic field, flattening the curvature or ripples in the fabric of space time. This dampens the gravitational wave amplitude and energy, and can be seen as the hardening of the visible spatial dimensions against gravitational oscillation.

Within the Rute framework, the expansion rate *H _{0}** of the S

_{0}dimension is a measure of spatial curvature. Therefore the flattening of space time curvature suppresses

*H*in equation (22), resulting in the softening of S

_{0}*_{P}dimension which becomes more sensitive to gravitational wave oscillation. Indeed with a flat geometry which implies

*H*=0, equation (22) becomes,

_{0}**h _{0} = h* (23)

Where the strain *h _{0}* of S

_{P}vibration becomes equal to the strain

*h*of the incident gravitational wave resulting in maximum reheating. In essence, a strong magnetic field like that obtainable around magentas softens the S

_{P}dimension by lowering the threshold strain and frequency required for reheating to occur for incident gravitational waves.

Strictly from energy conservation perspective, the energy lost by gravitational waves passing through a strongly magnetized region has to be released in some form and Rute’s GWR provides the mechanism for converting the gravitational wave energy into electromagnetic one. It is expected that the brief burst of electromagnetic waves radiated while the gravitational wave passes through a strongly magnetized region such as magentas, encodes information about the incident gravitational waves. These burst of electromagnetic radiation can appear as Fast Radio Burst (FRBs) or even Gamma Ray Burst (GRBs) depending on source proximity or strain and frequency of the incident gravitational waves, making magnetars possible astrophysical gravitational wave detectors.

** Dark matter from vacuum energy**

The bare vacuum energy component should always be gravitationally inert with its existence in the *G _{0}*=0

*G*state where the gravitational field is effectively switched off. However, in this framework, particle substrates of the standard model such as neutrinos affects their background while in the inert state such that

*G*>0

_{0}*G*.

Within such background in the inert state, neutrinos provides some gravitational illumination described by equation (24) that enables virtual particles to gravitate with positive pressure appearing as dark matter.

*G _{ν}* =

*β*Γ

^{2}

*G*(24)

Where,

G_{ν}=Induced gravitational constant in the inert state due to the background effect of neutrino substrates.

β=Dimensionless free parameter and the value varies with neutrino flavor and energy. It varies from 1 and approaches infinity as neutrino speed approaches speed limit c. Γ is the same asymmetry parameter involved in the emergence of dark energy.

With the expression of Γ in equation (7), equation (24) becomes,

Where *l _{0}* is the size of the S

_{0}dimension (in Planck unit) which is proportional to the absolute value of the gravitational potential Φ and suppresses this substrate effect of neutrinos and hence the near absence of dark matter effect in deep gravitational potential wells.

The value of *G _{ν}* falls off quickly within the range of the weak interaction indicating a possible link between the value of G and the
weak interaction.

While hot dark matter is the form of dark matter that can be produced by relativistic neutrinos, cosmic neutrinos are unrelativistic. Such non relativistic cosmic neutrino substrates should be further slowed down by the Higgs like drag from its self-induced gravitational interaction with virtual particles within its background. This enhances the clustering of cosmic neutrino substrates and the gravitating virtual particles in their background appear as cold dark matter.

The potential suppression of *G _{ν}* enables this substrate dependent form of dark matter to have hybrid behavior by mimicking
modified gravity form of dark matter such as Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) while also exhibiting some particle behavior
of its neutrino substrates like the superfluid dark matter described in [18]. The details of its unique properties will be discussed in
subsequent papers [19-21].

## Conclusion

Rute provides an elegant framework for the resolution of the cosmological constant problem of dark energy and the nature of dark
matter. In doing so it provides a deeper insight into the dimensional structure of space time and chain of causality involved in
gravitation. Specifically, it places the bare vacuum energy component in a state where the gravitational field is switched off with
actual gravitational constant *G _{0}*=0

*G*, while real standard model particles oscillate between this gravitationally inert state and the active state.

Due to an energy density constraint and a speed limit asymmetry that limits the capacity of the inert state to contain the entire
vacuum energy component, a small component spills into the active state as dark energy. The asymmetry parameter emerges from a
key dimensional symmetry and it is the ratio of the size of the spatial equivalent of time S_{0} and its microscopic partner S_{P}.

The illuminating effect of neutrino substrates particularly cosmic neutrinos, induces non zero gravitational constant in the inert state, providing gravitation for virtual particles which appears as dark matter. This baryonic substrate dependent form of dark matter can exhibit hybrid characteristics of particle dark matter and modified gravity form of dark matter like superfluid dark matter. It also indicates a possible link between the value of G and the weak interaction.

The reheating prediction in which gravitational waves produce electromagnetic secondary’s with negative pressure from strong magnetic fields of magnetars and dark energy might be the sources of Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) and Excess Radio Background (ERB).

In conclusion, the Rute framework offers new physics explanations for dark energy and dark matter as different manifestations of vacuum energy that can be tested and provides deep insights into the dimensional structure of space time and gravity.

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