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Review on Down Syndrome

Author(s): Santosh K

Down syndrome is a naturally occurring chromosomal disarrangement that has always been a part of the human condition, common across all races, genders or socio-economic lines, and affects approximately one in every 800 births worldwide, resulting in intellectual and physical disability and associated medical issues. Around 50% of children with Down syndrome also have congenital heart disease which may be associated with pulmonary hypertension. Visual disorders like cataracts and near or far sightedness is seen in 60% of children with Down syndrome. Intestinal malformations requiring surgical interventions are seen in approximately 10% of children. Typical characters of Down syndrome are slightly small head which is flattened in the back, extra skin folds at the inner corners of the eyes, up-slanted eyes, small ears, nose and mouth, short stature, small hands and feet and some degree of intellectual disability.

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