A Review on Gene cloning and Genome Organization

Author(s): Srilatha B

Gene cloning (DNA cloning) is nothing but the production of similar or exact copies (clones) of a particular gene or DNA sequence using genetic engineering techniques. In the genetic Engineering techniques the DNA containing the target gene is cut into fragments using restriction enzymes. With the help of the restriction enzymes these fragments are then inserted into cloning vectors, such as bacterial plasmids or bacteriophages, which transfer the recombinant DNA that is desirable gene to suitable host cells, such as the bacterium E. coli where the DNA gets replicated. Alternatively, the complementary DNA is inserted into the vectors, or ‘naked’ DNA fragments can be taken up directly by a host bacterium from its medium (this is less efficient than vector transfer).

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