Original Article
Int. J. Chem. Sci, Volume: 15( 3)

Radon Flux Density in Some Liquid of Cleaning Materials Samples in Iraq

*Correspondence:
Abojassim AA , Department of Physics, University of Kufa, Najaf-Iraq, Iraq, Tel: +964 (0) 7265217601; E-mail: [email protected]

Received: March 27, 2017; Accepted: July 29, 2017; Published: July 31, 2017

Citation: Abojassim AA, Ali Bakir HA, Ali Zbalh M. Radon Flux Density in Some Liquid of Cleaning Materials Samples in Iraq. Int J Chem Sci. 2017;15(3):164

Abstract

In this study, thirty samples of cleaning materials (liquid) were collected from the local markets of Al-Najaf government to assess radium content and radon flux density (radon exhalation rate) using LR-115 Type II technique. These samples were divided into six groups according to country of origin (i.e. Iraq, Turkey, Jordon, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and other countries). The results demonstrate that, the average of radium content in six groups (Iraq, Turkey, Jordon, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and other counties) were 55.22 Bq/kg ± 0.29 Bq/kg, 56.15 Bq/kg ± 0.37 Bq/kg, 32.38 Bq/kg ± 0.37 Bq/kg, 27.28 Bq/kg ± 0.63 Bq/kg, 60.34 Bq/kg ± 0.73 Bq/kg and 41.90 Bq/kg ± 0.23 Bq/kg respectively. The average values of radon flux density were 9.24 μBq/m2.h ± 0.25 μBq/m2.h, 11.00 μBq/m2.h ± 0.31 μBq/m2.h, 6.06 μBq/m2.h ± 0.31 μBq/m2.h, 4.55 μBq/m2.h ± 0.59 μBq/m2.h,11.17 μBq/m2.h ± 0.64 μBq/m2.h and 7.33 μBq/m2.h ± 0.20 μBq/m2.h respectively. All values of radium content and radon flux density in the study samples were found to be less than the allowed the values of 57.600 mBq/m2.h and 370 Bq/kg published by UNSCEAR and OECD.

Keywords

Radium content; Radon exhalation rates; Liquid cleaning material; LR-115 Type II detector

Introduction

The highest percentage of human radiation exposure comes from the naturally existed sources. These include terrestrial and extra-terrestrial sources. The origin of the extraterrestrial radiation is the outer space as cosmic rays that reach the atmosphere. However, terrestrial ones are coming from radioactive nuclei exits in trace amounts across the earth's crust which includes soils and rocks. The types of radiations that emitted from those nuclei can be transferred to human beings either via food chains or by inhalation causing deposition of energy within tissues. In this context, people are always exposing to ionizing radiation from naturally occurring radioactive sources [1]. Alpha-emitting radioactive sources are harmful elements to human being because of their high energy. The alpha particles are able to cause damage to normal tissues of different organs through chemical and toxicity effects [2]. The radon as a short-lived decay product is responsible for most of the radiation hazards after it has been taken inhalation. The radon inhalation hazard results from that it’s emitted alpha particles trapped in the lung and depositing their energies in the tissue, causing a higher damage than that of beta particles or gamma-rays. The cancer of lung and skin, and kidney diseases are the resulted health effects that attributed to radon-decay products inhalation [3]. Radium-226 and the corresponding radon-222 mainly originated from the naturally occurring uranium-238, that is existed in every type of rocks, building materials and soils in form of parts per million (ppm). The uranium content world average in the earth’s crust is estimated to be around 4 ppm. The Radium element is being a member of uranium radioactive series, is present elsewhere in the earth’s crust; hence, radon, which is the daughter of radium, is also presents everywhere but in different levels [4]. Knowledge about the level of the radioactivity in cleaning materials enables people to be aware of any possible radiation hazard resulting from the use of consuming such materials. In the light of the aforementioned facts, it is therefore, necessary to evaluate the radioactivity in some types of cleaning materials. Measuring of radon concentration and radon exhalation rates of liquid materials is a key in the radiation protection field. Environmental effects of cleaning agents are caused by chemical compounds in cleaning products. Cleaning agents may be bioactive with an effect that is ranging from mild to severe. Endocrine disruptors have been linked to cleaning agents [5,6]. Green cleaning can be considered as an approach to address the problems associated with traditional cleaning materials. [7-11]. In the present study, radium content and radon exhalation rates from different liquid cleaning materials commonly used in Iraqi were assessed using solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 Type II).

Material and Methods

Thirty of liquid cleaning material samples were collected from different markets in Iraq. These samples were divided in to six groups according to country of mad as shown in Table 1.

No. Country Sample type Sample name Sample code
1 Iraq Dishwasher Al-Ammer I1
2 Dishwasher Al-Wazir I2
3 Dishwasher Al-Yakuet I3
4 Dishwasher Rand I4
6 Dishwasher Dina I5
7 Chlorine detergent Fas I6
8 Turkey Dishwasher Cif T1
9 Shampoo Ipek T2
11 Shampoo Nono T3
12 Shampoo Vinos T4
13 Shampoo Fax T5
14 Jordon Dishwasher Al-Jazira J1
15 Dishwasher Al-Emlaq J2
16 Dishwasher Tauri J3
17 Chlorine detergent Flash J4
18 Cloth washer Lara J5
19 Saudi Arabia Dishwasher Fairy SA1
20 Shampoo Pert (plus) SA2
21 Shampoo Head & Shoulders SA3
22 Egypt Chlorine detergent Mr muscle E1
23 Shampoo Elvive E2
24 Shampoo Sunsilk E3
25 Other Labanon Cloth washer Persil O1
26 Cloth washer Persil (black) O2
27 Bahrain Cloth washer Vanish O3
28 Moroccan Shampoo Palmoive O4
29 Chain Shampoo Repair O5
30 France Shampoo Wellice O6
31 Germany Dishwasher Berfy O7

Table 1: Samples of liquefied cleaning materials used in this study.

Experimental setup

A LR-115 type II detector with a (12 μm) thickness was used to measure radium content and radon exhalation rates in the samples of liquid cleaning material. Every sample was placed inside a plastic cylindrical container with 7 cm length and 3.5 cm radius in a position that face the track detector. The same weight of the sample was placed in an emanation chamber, which then closed for a period of four weeks in order to reach a state of equilibrium between radium and radon. The dimensions of each detector were 1 × 1 cm2 and placed in the upper part of each containers (cylinder cover), while the samples placed the container floor and then sealed for 30 days exposure. After that, the LR-115 detector was etched in a sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution of (2.5) normality. This solution was prepared by dissolving 40 g of NaOH in 0.4 L of distilled water. After preparing the etching solution using magnetic stirrer, it was kept for 24 h to reach the homogeneity state. During this time, the detectors were carefully removed from the containers and, if possible, to maintain the surface of the detectors free of scratches. Next, detectors were placed in NaOH solution at the water bath locking it’s temperature at (60°C) for 90 min. Lastly, the detectors were removed from the solution and washed extensively by distilled water and then dried by soft papers. The numbers of tracks per unit area of detector were then counted using a 400X magnification power optical microscope (HDCE-50B Digital Camera, System Microscope N-120A).

Calculations of radium content and radon flux density

Radium content in study samples was calculated using the following eqn. [12,13]:

(1)

where, ρ refers to the track density which was calculated by [14]:

(2)

Te refers to the effective exposure time given by [13]:

(3)

K refers to the calibration factor. The calibration factor in this study for exposed dosimeters (5 days-30 days) to radium-226 (radon-222 source) of an activity of 3300 Bq was calculated to be (0.02 ± 0.003) (track/cm2)/(Bq.d. m3), which would agree well with many previous studies [15-18]. M is the sample mass (kg), A is the cross-section area of the can (m2) and h is the distance between the detection and top surface of the samples (m).

The radon flux density (Bq/m2.h) of the sample for the release of the radon can be calculated using the following expression [19]:

(4)

Results and Discussion

Tables 2-7 present the values of radium content and radon flux density for liquid cleaning materials samples. From Table 2, it can be seen that the value of radium content and radon flux density in Iraqi samples were varied from (24.35) Bq/kg to (85.07) Bq/kg with an average of (55.22 ± 0.29) Bq/kg and varied from (4.18) μBq/m2.h to (16.72) μBq/m2.h with an average of (9.24 ± 0.25) μBq/m2.h respectively.

No. Sample code CRa (Bq/kg) Ex (μBq/m2.h)
1 I1 56.83 10.47
2 I2 85.07 16.72
3 I3 78.15 11.52
4 I4 24.35 4.18
5 I5 56.92 6.29
6 I6 30.02 6.27
Average ± S. D 55.22 ± 0.29 9.24 ± 0.25

Table 2 : Results of CRa and Ex for samples under study that made in Iraq.

No. Sample code CRa (Bq/kg) Ex (μBq/m2.h)
1 T1 31.36 7.32
2 T2 30.09 6.28
3 T3 48.69 11.93
4 T4 101.24 9.57
5 T5 69.37 19.90
Average ± S.D 56.15±0.37 11.00±0.31

Table 3 : Results of CRa and Ex for samples under study that made in Turkey.

No. Sample code CRa (Bq/kg) Ex (μ Bq/m2.h)
1 J1 10 2.08
2 J2 19.71 3.14
3 J3 75.06 15.68
4 J4 24.4 4.19
5 J5 32.77 5.23
Average ± S.D 32.38 ± 0.37 6.06 ± 0.31

Table 4: Results of CRa and Ex for samples under study that made in Jordon.

No. Sample code CRa (Bq/kg) Ex (μ Bq/m2.h)
1 SA1 34.35 6.33
2 SA2 26.23 4.19
3 SA3 21.26 3.13
Average ± S. D 27.28 ± 0.63 4.55 ± 0.59

Table 5: Results of CRa and Ex for samples under study that made in Saudi Arabia.

No. Sample code CRa (Bq/kg) Ex (μBq/m2.h)
1 E1 97.58 16.78
2 E2 28.41 5.23
3 E3 55.05 11.50
Average ± S. D 60.34 ± 0.73 11.17 ± 0.64

Table 6: Results of CRa and Ex for samples under study that made in Egypt.

No. Sample code CRa (Bq/kg) Ex (μ Bq/m2.h)
1 O1 56.71 6.27
2 O2 62.75 11.56
3 O3 32.02 6.29
4 O4 60.05 12.54
5 O5 36.53 6.28
6 O6 26.23 4.19
7 O7 19.05 4.21
Average ± S. D 41.90 ± 0.23 7.33 ± 0.20

Table 7: Results of CRa and Ex for samples under study that made in other country.

According to Table 3, it can be seen that the value of radium content and radon flux density in Iraqi samples were varied from (30.09) Bq/kg to (101.24) Bq/kg with an average of (56.15 ± 0.37) Bq/kg and varied from (6.28) μBq/m2.h to (19.90) μBq/m2.h with an average of (11.00 ± 0.31) μBq/m2.h respectively.

From Table 4, It is clear that the value of radium content and radon flux density in Iraqi samples were varied from (10) Bq/kg to (75.06) Bq/kg with an average of (32.38 ± 0.37) Bq/kg and varied from (2.08) μBq/m2.h to (15.68) μBq/m2.h with an average of (6.06 ± 0.31) μBq/m2.h respectively.

From Table 5, it can be seen that the value of radium content and radon flux density in Iraqi samples were varied from (21.26) Bq/kg to (34.35) Bq/kg with an average of (27.28 ± 0.63) Bq/kg and varied from (3.13) μBq/m2.h to (6.33) μBq/m2.h with an average of (4.55 ± 0.59) μBq/m2.h respectively.

Regarding Table 6, it can be seen that the value of radium content and radon flux density in Iraqi samples were varied from (28.41) Bq/kg to (97.58) Bq/kg with an average of (60.34 ± 0.73) Bq/kg and varied from (5.23) μBq/m2.h to (16.78) μBq/m2.h with an average of (11.17 ± 0.64) μBq/m2.h respectively.

From Table 7, It can be seen that the value of radium content and radon flux density in Iraqi samples were varied from (19.05) Bq/kg to (62.75) Bq/kg with an average of (41.90 ± 0.23) Bq/kg and varied from (4.19) μBq/m2.h to (12.54) μBq/m2.h with an average of (7.33 ± 0.20) μBq/m2.h respectively.

According to above, it can be noticed that there are some variations in the findings of each of radium content and radon flux density across the study samples. These variations may be attributed to the differences in the nature of the samples composite and nuclei percentage of these samples. Nevertheless, the findings of radium content are less than the permissible level (370 Bq/kg) which had been recommended by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) [20]. Therefore, the results show that the samples of liquified cleaning materials as attributed to different counters were clearly safe as far as the hazards of radium are concerned. Additionally, it is found that, radon flux density (radon exhalation rates) as being observed in samples of the current study are well below the world average of 57 600 mBq/m2 h therefore this would not pose any health hazards to the human beings [21].

Table 8 presents a summary for the radium content and radon flux density if the liquefied cleaning materials samples that are made in Iraq, Turkey, Jordon, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and other countries supported by Figure. 1 and 2. The Egypt samples were characterized by the highest value of radium content and radon flux density, while the lowest value of radium content and radon flux density in Saudi Arabia samples.

materials-science-X-ray-diffraction-patterns-alloys

Figure 1: X-ray diffraction patterns of Sn61Bi25Sb5Zn4Al3Ag2 alloy.

materials-science-SEM-alloys

Figure 2: SEM of Sn61Bi25Sb5Zn4Al3-XAg2(TiO2)X alloys

Country CRa Ex
Iraq 55.22 6.65
Turkey 56.15 7.92
Jordon 32.38 4.36
Saudi Arabia 27.28 3.27
Egypt 60.34 8.04
Other countries 41.90 5.27

Table 8: Summary results of CRa and Ex for samples under study across different countries.

Conclusion

The study of radium content and radon flux density in some liquid of cleaning materials samples in Iraq showed that, all samples been tested had radium content and radon flux density less than the world average values of 370 Bq/kg and 57.600 mBq/m2.h recommended by UNSCEAR and OECD respectively. From a radioprotection point of view, it can be concluded that the studied samples can be used by human with negligible radiation hazards.

References