Abstract

Studies on the Phytochemical Composition and Fermentation of the Seeds of African Oil Bean Tree (Pentaclethra Macrophylla Benth)

Author(s): Donatus Ebere Okwu and Chioma Juliet Aluwuo

Phytochemical composition, proximate, vitamins and mineral contents of the African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) which is well known food and medicinal plant in Nigeria was assessed with a view to establishing and understanding the nutritional values of raw boiled and fermented seeds. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of bioactive compounds comprising alkaloids (1.88 -8.96 mg 100g-1), saponins (0.22 – 4.96 mg 100g-1), flavonoids (0.28 – 0.90 mg 100g-1), phenols (0.02 – 0.75 mg 100g-1) and tannins (3.0 x 10-3 – 0.49 mg100g-1). The protein, lipids, carbohydrates and fiber content were 24.06 - 28.25%; 44.20 – 52.50%, 17.31 – 21.93% and 2.66 – 3.76%, respectively. The food energy content ranged from 598.52 to 640.50 cal g-1. The seeds are rich in B- vitamins such as riboflavin ( 0.09 – 0.18 mg 100g-1), niacin (0.62 – 2.10 mg 100g1), and thiamine (0.14 – 0.25 mg 100g-1) while ascorbic acid content ranges from 2.64 – 10.56 mg 100g-1. The mineral contents include calcium (1.0 – 1.21 mg 100g-1), potassium (0.38 – 0.65 mg 100g-1), phosphorus (1.51 – 2.56 mg 100g-1), magnesium ( 0.30 – 0.55 mg 100g-1), sodium (0.18 – 0.23 mg100g-1), iron (4.23 – 7.30 mg 100g-1), zinc (1.14 – 1.31 mg 100g-1), and copper (0.67 – 0.98 mg 100g-1). Fermentation increases the food value of oil bean seeds for human consumption. The seeds can be considered as source of quality raw material for food and pharmaceutical industries.


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