Ophiorrhiza mungos Linn. (No. Rubiaceae) which is generally known as Sarhati is indigenous to India and is reported to be associated with important medicinal properties. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the concentrated ethanolic extract of defatted seed of this plant was subjected to chromatographic analysis, when it yielded a compound, molecular formula C31H46O, m.p. 176-177oC, M+ = 578, which gave positive test of cardenolide. Various characteristic reactions, chemical degradations and UV, IR 1H NMR and mass spectroscopic analysis led to its identification as Oleandrigenin-3-O-α-L rhamnopyranoside.