Melioidosis is considered as an emerging infectious disease of public health importance caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. In 1912, Sir Alfred Whitmore first identified this bacterium to be different from bacilli causing glander’s disease . In 1932, Stanton and Fletcher further characterized and categorized it under the family Pseudomonadaceae. Based on rRNA homology family Pseudomonadaceae was further subdivided into 5 groups and genus Burkholderia was grouped under group II. Group II is also known as “group of opportunistic pathogens” as the bacteria in this group have the potential to cause biological warfare and biologic terrorism.