Tanacetum polycephalum from compositae family consist of some subspecies in Iran. In this research, with the aim of phytochemical investigation, the aerial parts of 8 populations of this aromatic plant were collected, from different localities, and three subspecies were characterized. Four populations from Tanacetum polycephalum Schultz-Bip. subsp. argyrophyllum (C.Koch.) Podl., two populations from T.polycephalum Schultz-Bip. subsp. polycephalum and two populations of T.polycephalum Schultz-Bip. subsp. duderanum (Boiss.) Podl. were investigated. Hydro-distilled volatile oils from the aerial parts of eight samples of T.polycephalum, were investigated mainly by a combination of GC and GC/MS. The main components of the essential oils were as follow: T.polycephalum Schultz-Bip. subsp. argyrophyllum: camphor (3.1%- 52.0%), 1,8-cineole (18.2%-36.3%), pinocarvone (0.0%-31.4%), α-pinene (3.2%-9.5%) and p-cymene (0.5%-10.4%). T.polycephalum Schultz-Bip. subsp. polycephalum: camphor (15%-37.3%), 1,8-cineole (7.2%-8.8%), borneol (7.4%-9.4%) and β-thujone (0.7%-7.2%). T.polycephalum Schultz- Bip. subsp. duderanum: α-thujone (11.0%-43.4%), camphor (8.0%-18.8%), β-thujone (3.4%-15.1%) and borneole (8.3%-23.0%). Main components and their percentage varied by ecological parameters.