Safety cognitive risk (SCR), which has aroused extensive concern in recent years, is the subject of many safety management studies. However, studies on the safety cognitive risk of scaffolding workers by questionnaire survey in construction industry remain scarce. The purpose of this study was to verify safety cognitive risk with the aim at scaffolding workers’ unsafe behaviors in China. In order to obtain the safety cognitive risk test model, taking working without safety belts and throwing objects from the high as specific examples, the SPSS 17.0 (Statistical Product and Service Solutions) was used to verify safety cognitive risk and analyze influence factors through ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and T test methods. The results show that the safety cognitive risk is exist, especially evaluating the severity of injuries to others. What’s more, influence factors of age and working tenures are not significant in the SCR. The results of this study will provide the improvement consult and management suggestion in safety management of scaffold.