With the continuous progress of economy and society, the world competitive sports also continuously developed, as a consequence, no matter in communication form, scope, or in terms of the number of athletes also produced profound changes, which internationalized the athletes exchange patterns. This paper selected related research about Chinese sports development in different historical periods since the founding of China, and discussed the necessity for the construction of new athlete exchange system. On athletes exchange problems, the model of Chinese economy and the demand of competitive sports determine its internal changes. This paper selected the new period since the founding of China as the background, discussed the factors influencing the Chinese athletes exchange: First of all, the regional difference of economic development have promoted the exchange of the athletes; Secondly the current exchange management system can not keep up with the developmental speed of competitive sports, athletes exchange are limited, some provisions even have played an role in blocking athletes exchange; Thirdly, the barriers of athletes exchange take the form of the restriction and limitation in training system; Finally, in competitive sports career in China at present, there is urgent need to improve the links and factors: athletes exchange market is relatively backward, the quality of some sports agents are low. Integrated the above analysis, start from the new period Chinese sports career development perspective, take prominent features of exchange patterns in other countries as a reference, to put forward ideas of new athletes exchange system construction from four aspects of athletes training, etc.