Chitosan nanoparticles are being extensively used in various biomedical applications due to their small size to volume ratio. Modern breakthroughs in the fields of medical science have widened the horizons of nanotechnology for applications and medical imaging one of them. Chotosan nanoparticles are an obvious choice due to their amenability of synthesis and functionalization, less toxicity and ease of detection. This review is an join up of recent advances in the field of medical science with chitosan nanoparticles. Present article is confined about medical imaging application of chitosan, which is gaining rapid attention.