The genus Lactuca L. has an economic, edible and medicinal importance. However, it facesmany biotic and a biotic problems that limited its yield. Several viral, bacterial and fungal pathogens infect the genus and inflect a devastating effect. Also, some insect pathogens cause damage to leaves of Lactuca serriola and Lactuca sativa. The use of pesticides to control these devastated diseases is harmful for human and environment. The most important abiotic factors that limited the growth of lettuce are low and high temperature, high soil salinity, soil acidity, high soil moisture and humidity. Therefore, to overcome the harmful effect of biotic and a biotic factors, the scientists pay attention to genetic resources to find the genes conferring resistance, and the genes conferring high and good agronomic traits. The first step in exploiting genetic resources for human interest is the collection of genetic resources and the assessment of genetic diversity within and among species. There are many techniques used in evaluation of genetic diversity within and among plant species. They are extends from morphological traits to molecular markers passing with biochemicalmarkers. In this review, we surveyed all the data on using biochemical markers in the genetic assessment of Lactuca spp.