Bio-nanocomposites form a unique class of a research area that integrates biology, chemistry, materials science, engineering and nanotechnology to present an interdisciplinary approach for solving of problems. In todayÂs world, bio-nanocomposites are becoming increasingly prevalent due to the extraordinary properties that they possess. Scientists learn to select suitable matrices (e.g. aliphatic polyesters, polypeptides and proteins, polysaccharides, and polynucleic acids) and fillers (e.g. nanotubes, nanofibers, clay nanoparticles, hydroxyapetite and metal nanoparticles) and alter their chemistry and structure to suit the target field. This paper provides the most recent research made in the field of bio-nanocomposites as applied to biomedical fields including drug-delivery, biosensors, cancer diagnosis, and tissue engineering. Emerging trends in bio-technological and biomedical nanocomposites are highlighted and potential new fields of applications are examined.